What are the symptoms and complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?
Symptoms of PID
The infection may be subclinical (occurring without any symptoms), or there may be fever, chills, or pelvic pain indicating inflammation of the entire pelvic area.
Complications of PID
Severe or frequent attacks of PID can eventually cause scarring, abscess formation, and tubal damage that result in infertility. About 20% of women who develop symptomatic PID become infertile. The severity of the infection, not the number of the infections, appears to pose the greater risk for infertility.
PID also significantly increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy (fertilization in the fallopian tubes). A small US study suggests, however, that even mild Chlamydia infection that occurs in the upper genital tract may cause a higher proportion of ectopic pregnancies than previously thought.